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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 123-130

Biomonitoring of biomarkers among pesticide sprayers and nonsprayers across cropping seasons in Punjab, India


1 Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
3 School of Public Health and Zoonosis, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
4 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
5 Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Toxicology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

Correspondence Address:
Prof. J S Thakur
Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jncd.jncd_49_20

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Introduction: Pesticide exposure causes acute and chronic adverse health effects on humans affecting the Kelch ECH-associated protein (Keap1)- nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and other oxidative pathways. We assessed the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway and other oxidative stress biomarker levels among a cohort of agricultural pesticide sprayers (SP) and nonspraying (NSP) farmers of a rural community during the cotton and wheat cropping seasons in India. Methodology: We randomly selected eight villages from the four blocks of Bathinda district, Punjab. Using a cohort study design, we collected the socio-demographic characteristics and biological samples (blood and urine) from 68 SP and 71 NSP at baseline, during the flowering seasons of cotton and wheat crops at scheduled time points. The United States Environment Protection Agency methods and standards were used to detect pesticide residues. Standard and validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based kits and colorimetric method-based kits were used to detect the biomarkers of Keap1-Nrf2 and oxidative stress pathways. Results: In Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, cotton season glutathione peroxidase (P = 0.004) and baseline heme oxygenase-1 (P < 0.001) levels were significantly different between SP and NSP. However, glutathione reductase and glutathione s-transferase levels were not significantly different. Among oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the groups during the cotton season in malondialdehyde, isoprostane, protein carbonyl, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6. Conclusion: The Keap1-Nrf2 and other oxidative stress biomarker levels between the group were not consistently different all times across the seasons. The biomarker levels of SP and NSP need to be compared with the nonagricultural population.


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